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Field Hockey, Glossary of Terms

Artificial Turf: Artificial turf was first used for Olympic field hockey at the 1976 Games in Montreal. Today all international matches are played on a synthetic surface.

Ball: Made of solid plastic, weighing between 5 1/2 ounces and 5 3/4 ounces with a circumference of 8 13/16 inches to 9 1/4 inches. Usually white in color, other colors may be used as agreed.

Bully: A neutral re-start to play following a stop in the action, much like a face-off in ice hockey. The ball is placed on the ground between two players, one from each team. The player's alternate taps to the ground with taps to the flat side of their opponent's stick, three times, before going for the ball.

Center pass: A pass from the center of the field used to start the game or restart the action following halftime or a score.

The "D": Slang for the striking circle. The D-shaped area formed by the 16-yard semicircle line of the striking circle joining the goal line.

Dangerous Play: Any action that could result in danger or injury to the player or another player. Dangerous play could include a raised ball, am illegal tackle or playing the ball while lying on the ground.

Flick: A pushed ball that is raised off the ground.

Hit: Moving the ball following a swinging movement of the stick.

Misconduct: Offenses such as rough or dangerous play, intentional offenses, time-wasting or any bad behaviour. In addition to any penalty, umpires may issue warnings (Green Card) or suspension (Yellow or Red Card) for misconduct.

Obstruction: An infraction for shielding the ball from an opponent with a player's body or stick. All players must have an equal chance to gain control of the ball as it is dribbled or passed down the field.

Penalty Corner: A free hit awarded to an offensive player from a point on the goal line least 10 yards from the nearest goal post. One attacking player hits the ball to a teammate just outside the striking circle line. No shot on goal may be taken until the ball is stopped or come to rest on the ground outside the circle. All attackers must be outside the circle before the hit is taken. A maximum of five defenders may be behind the goal line while the remaining defenders must be positioned beyond the center line.

Pitch: The playing field. 100 yards by 60 yards, divided by a center line and a 25-yard line of each half of the field.

Push: Moving the ball along the ground by a pushing movement of the stick. Both the head of the stick and the ball are in contact with the ground.

Scoop: The lifting of the ball off the ground by placing the head of the stick under the ball and shoveling the ball forward.

Striking Circle: or "circle". A semicircle measured out 16 yards from each goal line. All goals must be struck from within this circle.

Time-wasting: Any action or non-action which prevents play from continuing or commencing within a reasonable time.

Watered-Down: The soaking of the artificial surface in all international matches. A wet turf "holds" the ball to the ground better than dry turf and it is better for the health of the athletes.